Scripture tells us that the sabbath is about three things—creation, rest and redemption (Exodus 20:8, Genesis 2:2-3, Deuteronomy 5:12-15).
The Sabbath was a type and shadow of Jesus Christ (Colossians 2:16-17) who would come and work for our redemption and usher in a new creation upon redeeming the creation that fell. Once the new creation was inaugurated, the old creation was done away with, including the memorial of that old, fallen creation.
In 2 Corinthians 5:16-17, Paul tells us the new creation has already started and that we are new creatures in Christ. With that being the case, we aren’t in the old creation anymore with the old creation memorial. We’re in the new creation with a new memorial—the day Jesus accomplished the work of our redemption and entered His rest.
Like God worked in creation and rested the seventh day. So Jesus worked for our redemption, inaugurating a new creation, and entered into His mediatorial rest for His people (Hebrews 10:12-13), ceasing from the work (indicated by His seated position)—which was the first day. This is why Christian’s worship every seven days from the new creation memorial—the first day—not every seven from the old creation memorial of the seventh day.
The Exodus account teaches us the creational aspect to the sabbath and Deuteronomy shows us the redemptive aspect. The old creation, of which the seventh day was a memorial sign, was a type and shadow of the New Creation that was inaugurated with the resurrection of Christ. Deliverance from slavery in Egypt was a type and shadow of our redemption and freedom from slavery to sin, which Christ delivers us from through His finished work of atonement. And the substance of all of it—both old and new—is Jesus.